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Reasonable Accommodations for Federal Employees: A Short Guide

TLDR; This article discusses the obligation of federal agencies under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to provide reasonable accommodations to employees or applicants with disabilities, ensuring equal access to job duties and an inclusive work environment. It covers the interactive process between employees and agencies, the role of the EEOC, considerations for undue hardship, and examples of accommodations like alternative work schedules, assistive technology, and telework options.

March 26, 2024

In federal employment, reasonable accommodations foster inclusivity, equal access, and fairness for individuals with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 mandate that federal agencies provide reasonable accommodations to qualified employees or applicants with disabilities, ensuring they can perform essential job functions without discrimination. In this article, we will discuss the crucial aspects of reasonable accommodation for federal employees, exploring the interactive process, undue hardship considerations, and the role of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in enforcing these provisions.

Understanding Reasonable Accommodation

Reasonable accommodation, as outlined in the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act, refers to modifications or adjustments made by federal agencies to enable qualified individuals with disabilities to perform their job duties effectively. These accommodations can relate to various aspects of employment, including work schedules, the work environment, telework options, reassignment, and the application process.

Learn more: Navigating Reasonable Accommodations: Rights, Responsibilities, and Practical Solutions Under the ADA

The Interactive Process

When a federal employee or job applicant requires a reasonable accommodation, the interactive process comes into play. This process involves open communication between the individual and their employer, typically with the federal agency's Human Resources department. The goal is to determine the most suitable accommodation that addresses the employee's needs while ensuring they can fulfill the essential functions of their job.

Learn more: What is the Interactive Process under the ADA?

The Role of the EEOC

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) plays a pivotal role in overseeing the reasonable accommodation process for federal employees. The EEOC enforces federal laws prohibiting employment discrimination, including the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act. It ensures that federal agencies adhere to these laws by providing reasonable accommodations and promoting equal employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities.

Undue Hardship Considerations

While federal agencies are mandated to provide reasonable accommodations, limitations are based on undue hardship. An undue hardship occurs when an accommodation would impose a significant financial or operational burden on the agency. It's important to note that undue hardship is determined on a case-by-case basis, therefore federal agency employers should take careful consideration before denying a reasonable accommodation request on the grounds that it imposes an undue hardship. 

The Interactive Process in Action

To gain a clearer understanding of how the interactive process works, let's consider an example:

Imagine a federal employee with a medical condition affecting their ability to attend regular in-person meetings. Their Human Resources representative initiated the interactive process, with involvement of the employee’s supervisor, to consider reasonable accommodations that would accommodate this employee. 

It is important to note that, under the Americans with Disabilities Act, an accommodation is consider "reasonable" if it meets the following criteria:

  1. It appears to be "feasible" or "plausible."

  2. It is effective in meeting the needs of the employee

  3. It enables the employee to perform the essential functions of the position, and

  4. It allows the employee with a disability an equal opportunity to enjoy the benefits and privileges of employment that employees without disabilities enjoy

Continuing with our scenario, the employee, HR representative and supervisor discuss potential reasonable accommodations, including telework options, flexible work schedules, or the provision of sign language interpreters during meetings.

Through this collaborative process, they evaluate each accommodation's feasibility, effectiveness, and potential costs. If telework is deemed a suitable accommodation, the employee can work from home on days when in-person meetings are scheduled. This allows them to fulfill their job duties while addressing the limitations of their medical condition.

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Equal Access to Job Duties

Reasonable accommodation ensures equal access to job duties for federal employees with disabilities. It allows them to perform their work effectively, participate in training and development opportunities, and enjoy the privileges of employment on an equal footing with their colleagues.

The Importance of Medical Documentation

When requesting reasonable accommodation, federal employees or applicants may be required to provide limited medical documentation supporting their disability. This documentation is essential for agencies to assess the nature and extent of the disability and determine appropriate accommodations. It helps agencies make informed decisions and ensures accommodations are tailored to the individual's needs.

Examples of Reasonable Accommodations

Reasonable accommodations vary widely, depending on the individual's disability and job requirements. Here are some examples of reasonable accommodations for federal employees:

1. Alternative Work Schedules: Adjusting work hours or allowing for part-time employment to accommodate medical conditions.

2. Assistive Technology: Providing specialized equipment or software to assist individuals with disabilities in performing their job duties.

3. Job Restructuring: Modifying job tasks or responsibilities to better suit the employee's capabilities.

4. Reassignment: Transferring the employee to a vacant position that better aligns with their abilities and limitations.

5. Sign Language Interpreters: Offering sign language interpreters for employees with hearing impairments during meetings and training sessions.

6. Telework: Allowing employees to work remotely when their disabilities affect their ability to commute or work in a traditional office setting.


In the federal government, reasonable accommodation is not just a legal obligation but a fundamental principle of ensuring equal employment opportunities for individuals with disabilities. The ADA and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 set the stage for a fair and inclusive work environment by requiring federal agencies to engage in the interactive process, provide necessary accommodations, and avoid discrimination.

Federal agencies uphold the principles of equal access and equal employment opportunity by implementing reasonable accommodation programs and collaborating with qualified employees and applicants. By carefully considering each accommodation request on a case-by-case basis, undue hardship can be minimized, fostering a workplace where all individuals, regardless of their disabilities, can thrive and contribute effectively to the federal government's mission.

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